Conception et prototypage d’un système complet pour la surveillance du grain dans les silos de stockage

Fehd Bettahar 1
1 LAAS-S4M - Équipe Instrumentation embarquée et systèmes de surveillance intelligents
LAAS - Laboratoire d'analyse et d'architecture des systèmes [Toulouse]
Abstract : This thesis deals with new monitoring technologies applied to grain storage in silos. Since the first sedentary groups, cereals have been representing the main population and livestock’s staple food. Harvests are seasonal and their storage is therefore a vital necessity for the world’s population that will count 9 billion in 2050 compared to 7.3 billion today. In this problematic around monitoring of silos, insects represent the first grain postharvest pest causing considerable losses, in some cases up to 10% of the production. Several techniques and methods have been developed and implemented in order to face the danger of these pests. The most common method is the use of synthetic chemical insecticides, which have an obvious negative effect on both human health and the environment. This work is part of a cooperative program named ECOSILO, whose main objective is to design and prototype ecological alternatives to the systematic and massive use of insecticides. This is therefore a largely multidisciplinary approach, in which we were in charge to conceptualize a comprehensive monitoring system to: provide an earlier detection of infestations and put in place an automatic control of the attractive and insecticides diffusion. Our proposal is based on a logic of integrated pest management (IPM) and focuses on the prevention and early detection of possible infestations, in order to preserve stocks and avoid reaching high level of economic loss. Its fundamental originality lies in the proposition of a predictive model of the infestation development, which consists of coupling a thermal model of the silo with a biological model describing the insect’s growth. It is thus possible, with the support of additional meteorological data, to anticipate the development of insects and to initiate preventive alarms. This solution is accompanied by more specific electronic and computer monitoring developments in silos which are: A detection system at the entrance of silos; A supervision of the top of the hottest heap of grain; A monitoring of the heap of grain in its entire height. These developments are implementing multiple detection modes (temperature, humidity, acoustic probe, CO2). All these technical contributions are incorporated in the form of a comprehensive monitoring system equipped with a user interface that meets the requirements of the overall project ECOSILO. The functional checks have been performed in the laboratory and on real site. We conclude on the perspectives opened by this work.
Document type :
Theses
Systèmes et contrôle [cs.SY]. UNIVERSITE DE TOULOUSE II, 2016. Français
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Fehd Bettahar. Conception et prototypage d’un système complet pour la surveillance du grain dans les silos de stockage. Systèmes et contrôle [cs.SY]. UNIVERSITE DE TOULOUSE II, 2016. Français. 〈tel-01376036〉

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