Lateral porous silicon membranes for planar microfluidic applications

Yingning He 1
1 LAAS-MEMS - Équipe Microsystèmes électromécaniques
LAAS - Laboratoire d'analyse et d'architecture des systèmes [Toulouse]
Abstract : Lab on a chip devices aim at integrating functions routinely used in medical laboratories into miniaturized chips to target health care applications with a promising impact foreseen in point-of-care testing. Porous membranes are of great interest for on-chip sample preparation and analysis since they enable size- and charge-based molecule separation, but also molecule pre-concentration by ion concentration polarization. Out of the various materials available to constitute porous membranes, porous silicon offers many advantages, such as tunable pore properties, large porosity, convenient surface chemistry and unique optical properties. Porous silicon membranes are usually integrated into fluidic chips by sandwiching fabricated membranes between two layers bearing inlet and outlet microchannels, resulting in three-dimensional fluidic networks that lack the simplicity of operation and direct observation accessibility of planar microfluidic devices. To tackle this constraint, we have developed two methods for the fabrication of lateral porous silicon membranes and their monolithic integration into planar microfluidics. The first method is based on the use of locally patterned electrodes to guide pore formation horizontally within the membrane in combination with silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrates to spatially localize the porous silicon within the channel depth. The second method relies on the fact that the formation of porous silicon by anodization is highly dependent on the dopant type and concentration. While we still use electrodes patterned on the membrane sidewalls to inject current for anodization, the doping via implantation enables to confine the membrane analogously to but instead of the SOI buried oxide box. Membranes with lateral pores were successfully fabricated by these two methods and their functionality was demonstrated by conducting filtering experiments. In addition to sample filtration, we have achieved electrokinetic pre-concentration and interferometric sensing using the fabricated membranes. The ion selectivity of the microporous membrane enables to carry out sample pre-concentration by ion concentration polarization with concentration factors that can reach more than 103 in 10 min by applying less than 9 V across the membrane[TL1]. These results are comparable to what has already been reported in the literature using e.g. nanochannels with much lower power consumption. Finally, we were able to detect a change of the porous silicon refractive index through the shift of interference spectrum upon loading different liquids into the membrane. The work presented in this dissertation constitutes the first step in demonstrating the interest of porous silicon for all-in-one sample preparation and biosensing into planar lab on a chip.
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Micro and nanotechnologies/Microelectronics. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III, 2016. English. 〈NNT : 2016TOU30255〉
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Yingning He. Lateral porous silicon membranes for planar microfluidic applications. Micro and nanotechnologies/Microelectronics. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III, 2016. English. 〈NNT : 2016TOU30255〉. 〈tel-01445669v2〉

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