Écoulements liquide-gaz, évaporation, cristallisation dans les milieux micro et nanoporeux. Études à partir de systèmes modèles micro et nanofluidiques

Antoine Naillon 1
1 LAAS-MILE - Équipe Micro-Nanofluidique pour les sciences de la vie et de l’environnement
LAAS - Laboratoire d'analyse et d'architecture des systèmes [Toulouse]
Abstract : Flows in porous media are ubiquitous in nature and industry. The aim of this thesis work is to study these flows in presence of liquid and gas, relying on the use of artificial model systems. They correspond to imbibition (or capillary invasion), drainage (or the displacement of a wetting fluid by a non-wetting fluid), and evaporation (or drying). A first part of this work focuses on the liquid-gas flows in porous media whose pore size is lower than 100 nm. They are called nanoporous media. At this scale, several phenomena might modify the liquid-gas flows in comparison with what is known at the micrometer scale: e.g. contact line pinning, high negative pressure in liquid or cavitation. Thus, experiments are needed to better characterize these flows. In parallel, recent progresses in nanofabrication allow fabricating devices whose depth drop down to few nanometers. This approach provide an innovative tool to study the flows in nanoporous model systems in two dimensions, as it has been already performed at larger scale. A clear advantage to this system is that it allows direct observation of different phases. Silicon-glass nanofluidic devices were fabricated with constant depth in the 20-500 nm range. A new fabrication process was developed to obtain nanochannel with non-uniform depth in one step. It is based on grayscale laser lithography. Imbibition experiments and a numerical model showed that the gas pressurization increased the gas transfer throw the liquid. Drainage experiments were performed in devices with pressure as high as 20 bars. Pore networks modeling with invasion percolation algorithm showed that the experimental invasion patterns correspond to those expected at micrometer scale for low Capillary number. Evaporation in nanochannels revealed interesting kinetics of bubbles appearance and growth. A prospective study is shown at the end to argue the importance of pursuing these studies in deformable media. The second part of this work concentrates on the sodium chloride crystallization at the scale of a micrometer pore. In the specific case of the drying of a salt solution, evaporation leads to the crystallization of the dissolved species. This phenomenon is involved in the issue of art conservation or building salt weathering. The mechanisms which lead to a stress on wall induced by a crystal are not generally admitted both at macro and microscale. Deformations induced by crystal growth were observed in glass-polymer (PDMS) microfluidic devices. The crystal growth kinetics was measured at high acquisition rate and allowed giving a new value of the parameter of kinetics of crystal growth by reaction, one to two orders of magnitude higher than the ones used in literature. A numerical model was developed to predict the evolution of dissolved salt concentration during crystal growth. It allowed designing a phase diagram which gives the condition to favors the stress generation by a crystal on a wall. A theoretical analysis defined a Damkhöler number, taking into account transport properties and pore size. At last, a stress generation mechanism was observed, leading to the pore closure.
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Mécanique des fluides [physics.class-ph]. Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse, 2016. Français
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Antoine Naillon. Écoulements liquide-gaz, évaporation, cristallisation dans les milieux micro et nanoporeux. Études à partir de systèmes modèles micro et nanofluidiques. Mécanique des fluides [physics.class-ph]. Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse, 2016. Français. 〈tel-01449523〉

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