Conception et réalisation de rectennas utilisées pour la récupération d'énergie électromagnétique pour l'alimentation de réseaux de capteurs sans fils

Abderrahim Okba 1
1 LAAS-MINC - Équipe MIcro et Nanosystèmes pour les Communications sans fil
LAAS - Laboratoire d'analyse et d'architecture des systèmes [Toulouse]
Abstract : The electronic domain has known a significant expansion the last decades, all the advancements made has led to the development of miniature and efficient electronic devices used in many applications such as cyber physical systems. These systems use low-power wireless sensors for: detection, monitoring and so on. The use of wireless sensors has many advantages: * The flexibility of their location, they allow the access to hazardous areas. * The realization of lighter system, less expensive and less cumbersome. * The elimination of all the problems associated to the cables (erosion, impermeability...) * The deployment of sensor arrays. Therefore, these wireless sensors need to be supplied somehow with energy to be able to function properly. The classic ways of supplying energy such as batteries have some drawbacks, they are limited in energy and must be replaced periodically, and this is not conceivable for applications where the wireless sensor is placed in hazardous places or in places where the access is impossible. So, it is necessary to find another way to permanently provide energy to these wireless sensors. The integration and miniaturization of the electronic devices has led to low power consumption systems, which opens a way to another techniques in terms of providing energy. Amongst the possibilities, we can find the Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) and Energy Harvesting (EH). In fact, the electromagnetic energy is nowadays highly available in our planet thanks to all the applications that use wireless systems. We can take advantage of this massive available quantity of energy and use it to power-up the low power wireless sensors. This thesis is incorporated within the framework of WPT and EH. Its objective is the conception and realization of electromagnetic energy harvesters called "Rectenna" in order to supply energy to low power wireless sensors. The term "rectenna" is the combination of two words: Antenna and Rectifier. The Antenna is the module that captures the electromagnetic ambient energy and converts it to a RF signal, the rectifier is the RF circuit that converts this RF signal into a continuous (DC) signal that is used to supply the wireless sensors. In this manuscript, several rectennas will be presented, for different frequencies going from the GSM frequencies (868 MHz, 915 MHz) to the Ku/Ka bands.
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Abderrahim Okba. Conception et réalisation de rectennas utilisées pour la récupération d'énergie électromagnétique pour l'alimentation de réseaux de capteurs sans fils. Electromagnétisme. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017TOU30286⟩. ⟨tel-01705139v2⟩

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