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De l'étude de l'initiation de nanolaminés réactifs Al/CuO par point chaud à l'intégration de pyroMEMS pour la sécurité

Abstract : Energetic materials are able to generate high amount of thermal or mechanical energy in a very short time (µs) under an electrical, mechanical of thermal stimulus. Conventional materials, such as propellants or explosives, are widely used in pyrotechnic systems, but, for most of them, they can be impacted by new safety and environmental restrictions. Among the new compounds investigated, nanothermites (mixture of Al and metal oxide, in this case, copper oxide CuO, in nanometric dimensions) are particularly promising. In response to a stimulus, an oxidation-reduction reaction occurs, releasing a significant amount of energy in the form of heat. LAAS was among the first in France to perceive the need to find solutions for energetic materials integrable in thin film technology that are compatible with the ultimate integration and replace, where possible, the primary compositions of the initiators. Today a magnetron sputtering process is available for the growth of reactive nanolaminates consisting of alternating aluminum (Al) and copper oxide (CuO) nanolayers. The objective of this PhD is to consolidate the deposition technology which was developed in previous PhD, and promote applications, particularly by demonstrating two safety devices in close cooperation with industries. In a first part of the work, I experimentally studied the initiation of Al/CuO thermite reactions by a titanium hot wire, directly in contact with the multilayer nanothermite material. We have demonstrated that the nanothermite initiation conditions were largely influenced by electrical characteristics applied to the hot wire terminals, but also by the heating surface area, and the nanothermites' structure and composition. The results of this study published in 'Journal of Applied Physics' allowed a better understanding of the hot point initiation of multilayer Al/CuO nanothermites, and; in particular, the establishment of design rules for multilayer nanothermites initiators. In a second stage of work, nanothermite initiators, here called pyroMEMS, were optimized, manufactured, and integrated into two pyrotechnic safety devices: a gas generator igniter, and a very fast circuit breaker. Interfacing between the nanothermites and the two applications has been studied and the initiators are able to ensure the desired robustness and reliability requirements.
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Andréa Nicollet. De l'étude de l'initiation de nanolaminés réactifs Al/CuO par point chaud à l'intégration de pyroMEMS pour la sécurité. Matériaux. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018TOU30230⟩. ⟨tel-01975663v2⟩

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