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Temporal models of motions and forces for Human-Robot Interactive manipulation

Kevin Desormeaux 1
1 LAAS-RIS - Équipe Robotique et InteractionS
LAAS - Laboratoire d'analyse et d'architecture des systèmes
Abstract : It was in the 70s when the interest for robotics really emerged. It was barely half a century ago, and since then robots have been replacing humans in the industry. This robot-oriented solution doesn't come without drawbacks as full automation requires time-consuming programming as well as rigid environments. With the increased need for adaptability and reusability of assembly systems, robotics is undergoing major changes and see the emergence of a new type of collaboration between humans and robots. Human-Robot collaboration get the best of both world by combining the respective strengths of humans and robots. But, to include the human as an active agent in these new collaborative workspaces, safe and flexible robots are required. It is in this context that we can apprehend the crucial role of motion generation in tomorrow's robotics. For the emergence of human-robot cooperation, robots have to generate motions ensuring the safety of humans, both physical and physchological. For this reason motion generation has been a restricting factor to the growth of robotics in the past. Trajectories are excellent candidates in the making of desirable motions designed for collaborative robots, because they allow to simply and precisely describe the motions. Smooth trajectories are well known to provide safe motions with good ergonomic properties. In this thesis we propose an Online Trajectory Generation algorithm based on sequences of segment of third degree polynomial functions to build smooth trajectories. These trajectories are built from arbitrary initial and final conditions, a requirement for robots to be able to react instantaneously to unforeseen events. Our approach built on a constrained-jerk model offers performance-oriented solutions : the trajectories are time-optimal under safety constraints. These safety constraints are kinematic constraints that are task and context dependent and must be specified. To guide the choice of these constraints we investigated the role of kinematics in the definition of ergonomics properties of motions. We also extended our algorithm to cope with non-admissible initial configurations, opening the way to trajectory generation under non-constant motion constraints. [...]
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Kevin Desormeaux. Temporal models of motions and forces for Human-Robot Interactive manipulation. Robotics [cs.RO]. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III, 2019. English. ⟨NNT : 2019TOU30221⟩. ⟨tel-02453958v2⟩

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