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De la synthèse de nanoparticules de CuO par voie organométallique à l'assemblage de matériaux énergétiques Al/CuO

Abstract : Among the energetic materials, nanothermites are known for their high reactivity and their use in pyrotechnic applications. In this context, the Al/CuO composite is a promising material for integration into micro-devices, due to its high enthalpy of oxidation-reduction reaction. The increase of the contact surface between the two reactants of the thermite improves the properties. Control of the size, morphology and distribution of nanoparticles within the nanocomposite is therefore of fundamental importance. In the majority of cases, the nanothermites are obtained by physical mixing of non-dispersible commercial nanopowders. In this thesis we proposed to explore an organometallic way to synthesize CuO nanoparticles to assembly with Al commercial nanoparticles. For this purpose, CuO nanoparticles are synthesized by hydrolysis or controlled oxidation of an organometallic precursor (copper amidinate) in the presence of organic ligands (octylamine). Sizes, shapes and distributions vary depending on the experimental conditions of the syntheses. The surface states of the CuO nanoparticles were then analyzed by NMR and infrared spectroscopy characterization methods. The information acquired allowed us to identify the interactions between the ligands and the surface of the nanoparticles. In a second step, the CuO nanoparticles are mixed by ultrasons with nanopowders dispersed in an organic solvent. The thermal characterizations of these nanocomposites show the presence of non-characteristic exothermic and endothermic reactions of the usual Al + CuO thermite reaction. Thermal and structural analyzes of CuO nanoparticles revealed that the ligands oxidize at low temperature (~ 200 °C) and reduce the CuO to Cu2O then to metallic Cu, before the thermite reaction takes place. An optimized experimental protocol was finally implemented to preserve the structure of CuO while eliminating the ligands present in the stabilizing layer of the nanoparticles. These new assemblies generate a reaction energy equivalent to Al/CuO nanothermites obtained by mixing commercial powders. But these nanocomposites have lower initiation temperatures, which is interesting for some applications. The accumulated knowledge of surface states and the stabilization of nanoparticles in solution open the way to the integration of nanocomposites on microelectronic chips by “inkjet” technology.
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Ségolène Palussière. De la synthèse de nanoparticules de CuO par voie organométallique à l'assemblage de matériaux énergétiques Al/CuO. Micro et nanotechnologies/Microélectronique. Université Toulouse 3 Paul Sabatier (UT3 Paul Sabatier), 2019. Français. ⟨tel-02492683⟩

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