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Techniques embarquées de localisation indoor exploitant le protocole Bluetooth pour des objets connectés basse consommation

Xavier Tolza 1
1 LAAS-S4M - Équipe Instrumentation embarquée et systèmes de surveillance intelligents
LAAS - Laboratoire d'analyse et d'architecture des systèmes
Abstract : Location is an information used by many fields in both civil and military: warfare, exploration, aeronautical / naval / space navigation, construction, logistics, etc. Since the Second World War and the democratization of general public radio equipment (smartphones, GNSS receivers, etc.), localization by radio waves has gradually established itself as the standard method of localization in a large number of fields. From the last century until today, the capacities of localization systems have increased, thanks to the constant improvement of the computing power of integrated circuits and their miniaturization, allowing to integrate localization functionalities in a growing number of mobile equipments. The measurement of the radio signals and the calculations necessary for the position estimation can now be done by equipments of reduced size. Most of the time, current solutions use fixed and wired-powered radio equipment to allow the location of mobile connected objects. However, it is preferable for many use cases that the entire system runs on batteries: temporary deployments, environments without a power supply network, installation costs too high... It is therefore necessary to evaluate and improve the energy autonomy of current positioning algorithms. Many connected objects are already in circulation, and research around a location system compatible with this already existing equipments arouses great research interest. A large part of current connected objects using standardized protocols in the ISM 2.4GHZ band, many studies assess the relevance of standard radio protocols using it. The Bluetooth standard is widespread and energy efficient, which makes it an attractive candidate for indoor positioning. There are many studies presenting a positioning system using this protocol, but there is no conclusive comparison on the performance of the main existing algorithms using ultra low consumption hardware. The objective of this study is to develop a positioning system applied to indoor positioning, using the Bluetooth protocol and fully autonomous on battery. A comparison between the main techniques and algorithms already existing (reception power (RSSI), time of arrival (ToA) and angle of arrival (AoA)) will be carried out and energy autonomy will be evaluated. First, the physical models of these three techniques are compared, and a parametric optimization allowing to go back to a position from the raw measurements is presented. Different energy management strategies are presented and the methods used to perform the measurements for low power location are detailed. Finally, the energy performance of the system is evaluated, the overall autonomy is estimated and the position error distribution function is given for each of the three techniques is compared.
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Submitted on : Thursday, January 21, 2021 - 9:08:13 AM
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Xavier Tolza. Techniques embarquées de localisation indoor exploitant le protocole Bluetooth pour des objets connectés basse consommation. Micro et nanotechnologies/Microélectronique. Institut national des sciences appliquées de Toulouse, 2020. Français. ⟨tel-03117260v1⟩



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