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CALAM : Cavités Actives Laser à Autocollimation Mésoscopique

Sergio Iván Flores Esparza 1 
1 LAAS-PHOTO - Équipe Photonique
LAAS - Laboratoire d'analyse et d'architecture des systèmes
Abstract : Photonic crystals are periodic structures that exhibit remarkable dispersive properties. They make it possible to manipulate, filter, guide, and shape light at the wavelength scale, paving the way for on-chip, hybrid, or integrated photonic engineering. Since the 1990s, research efforts have focused on exploiting bandgap openings in defect guides components to guide and confine light. In 1999 new effects were highlighted, based entirely on the dispersive properties of photonic crystals, allowing the design of optical multiplexers, ultra-selective filters, and self- collimation guides. Self-collimation exploits the dispersive properties of the crystal, to contain the transverse spread of a beam and ensures "self-guided" propagation. This occurs in the absence of cross-talking between two beams propagating in the crystal, which makes it possible to design multi-channel photonic interconnections. This guiding occurs at any point in the crystal, it is not necessary to superimpose an incident beam with a defect or an index contrast guide, which requires precise alignments with submicron tolerances. However, photonic crystals show planar losses at interfaces, which complicates the injection and extraction of light, and the high air filling factor of the medium does not allow to combine self-collimation with other phenomena such as laser effect. From the year 2012 a new effect has been put forward: mesoscopic self-collimation (MSC), which makes it possible to guide light in a medium alternating photonic crystal and homogeneous high index material, and to drastically improve the injection and extraction of light. This phenomenon can take place in arbitrary direction and under the light cone. In MSC laser cavities the homogeneous medium acts as an active medium, so a "self-guided" laser emission is obtained; then, by playing with the size of each medium, it is possible to design flat mirrors with high angular acceptance. We can obtain ultra-compact Fabry-Perot cavities. This thesis is part of the continuation of the research on these laser cavities and seeks to produce its first experimental demonstration. The laser effect is possible when the gain of the active medium compensates for optical losses. We seek to minimize optical losses and increase the gain of the homogeneous medium. We developpe a parametric design model, with very low numerical cost, to design MSC structures in arbitrary directions, while minimizing planar and out-of-plane optical losses. Then, by ensuring lossless energy propagation, MSC conditions are simple to achieve. In a second step, we are interested in the development of a membrane manufacturing process, in the III-V sector, which preserves the active environment and minimizes optical losses from manufacturing defects. Our starting point is a manufacturing process developed in 2011 that has significant limitations. Some steps in this process are incompatible with MOS technologies and therefore limit their use for integrated circuits. Other steps introduce defects that can create non-radiative recombination sites that increase optical loss. The various steps had to be improved or redesigned and the entire process also had to be adapted to the new machines present in the clean room, which have never been tested for the manufacture of photonic crystals.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, March 1, 2022 - 9:28:39 AM
Last modification on : Wednesday, June 1, 2022 - 4:15:23 AM
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Sergio Iván Flores Esparza. CALAM : Cavités Actives Laser à Autocollimation Mésoscopique. Micro et nanotechnologies/Microélectronique. UPS Toulouse - Université Toulouse 3 Paul Sabatier, 2022. Français. ⟨tel-03592121⟩



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