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Cell biology of microbes and pharmacology of antimicrobial drugs explored by Atomic Force Microscopy

Abstract : Antimicrobial molecules have been used for more than 50 years now and are the basis of modern medicine. No surgery can nowdays be imagined to be performed without antibiotics; dreadful diseases like tuberculosis, leprosis, siphilys, and more broadly all microbial induced diseases, can be cured only through the use of an-timicrobial treatments. However, the situation is becoming more and more complex because of the ability of microbes to adapt, develop, acquire, and share mechanisms of resistance to antimicrobial agents. We choose to introduce this review by drawing the panorama of antimicrobial discovery and development, but also of the emergence of microbial resistance. Then we describe how Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) can be used to provide a better understanding of the mechanisms of action of these drugs at the nanoscale level on microbial interfaces. In this section, we will address these questions: (1) how does drug treatment affect the morphology of single microbes?; (2) do antimicrobial molecules modify the nanomechanical properties of microbes, or do the nanomechanical properties of microbes play a role in antimicrobial activity and efficiency?; and (3) how are the adhesive abilitites of microbes affected by antimicrobial drugs treatment? Finally, in a second part of this review we focus on recent studies aimed at changing the paradigm of the single molecule/cell technology that AFM typically represents. Recent work dealing with the creation of a microbe array which can be explored by AFM will be presented, as these developments constitute the first steps toward transforming AFM into a higher throughput technology. We also discuss papers using AFM as NanoMechnanicalSensors (NEMS), and demonstrate the interest of such approaches in clinical microbiology to detect quickly and with high accuracy microbial resistance.
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Submitted on : Thursday, November 22, 2018 - 6:39:24 PM
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Cécile Formosa-Dague, Raphael E Duval, Etienne Dague. Cell biology of microbes and pharmacology of antimicrobial drugs explored by Atomic Force Microscopy. Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology, Elsevier, 2018, 73, pp.165 - 176. ⟨10.1016/j.semcdb.2017.06.022⟩. ⟨hal-01907671⟩



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