Conception et développement d'un micro détonateur électrique intégrant des nanothermites pour l’amorçage par impact d’explosifs secondaires

Ludovic Glavier 1
1 LAAS-N2IS - Équipe Nano Ingénierie et Intégration des Systèmes
LAAS - Laboratoire d'analyse et d'architecture des systèmes [Toulouse]
Abstract : Pyrotechnic systems are the keys for satellite launching on orbit. Those systems are used for engines ignition, stage separation and self-destruction. To activate those functions, different kinds of initiators are used to generate a flame, pressure from gas expansion and a shock wave. This work involved following a previous thesis on the design of a smart and safe initiator able to generate a flame and pressure form gas expansion but not a shock wave which is essential in achieving certain functions on launcher as stage separation or neutralization. The initiator is controlled by digital controls, it contain local energy source, a mechanical safety barrier and a PyroMEMS for electro-pyrotechnical conversion. This initiator is design to replace Ariane 5 current pyrotechnic systems because they are heavy, bulky, they contain a large amount of pyrotechnic substance increasing the cost of manufacturing and storage. Also detonators and transmission lines contain lead banned by the European REACh. The goal of these thesis works is to design the detonator function from the flame generated by the PyroMEMS containing 50 µg of Al / CuO nanothermite in a volume less than 0,83 cm3 without primary explosive. After the study of secondary explosive priming methods and the state of art of existing detonators, we designed an architecture running on propelling a projectile creating a shock wave through impact. The development of this detonation function was used to study the behavior of different nanothermites (Al / CuO, Al / Bi2O3, Al / MoO3 and Al / PTFE) with a view to propel the projectile. An interior ballistic model is developed with the combustion nanothermite Al / Bi2O3 doped with PTFE to conclude that it is not possible to use nanothermites to ignite in detonation by impact, by a shock to Detonation Transition) a secondary explosive such as RDX. A propulsion system based on the combustion of RDX initiated by nanothermite is then developed with a study of the influence of dimensional parameters. Achieving a final demonstrator allows to ignite in detonation RDX demonstrates the feasibility of such a device and to validate design choices.
Document type :
Theses
Micro et nanotechnologies/Microélectronique. Université de Toulouse 3 Paul Sabatier, 2017. Français
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Ludovic Glavier. Conception et développement d'un micro détonateur électrique intégrant des nanothermites pour l’amorçage par impact d’explosifs secondaires. Micro et nanotechnologies/Microélectronique. Université de Toulouse 3 Paul Sabatier, 2017. Français. 〈tel-01483791〉

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